Download E-books The United Kingdom: England (1st Edition) PDF

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By Jeff Wallenfeldt, Britannica Educational Publishing

Regardless of its relatively small dimension, England has been a country of substantial stature at the foreign degree for far of its background. because the domestic of parliamentary executive, William Shakespeare, and the English language, England has been an influential participant within the political and cultural improvement of countries internationally. the tale of britain is captured during this compelling quantity, which gives an summary of its wealthy earlier, striking current, and promising destiny.

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Reluctantly, Philip selected battle opposed to England because the in simple terms manner of exterminating heresy and disciplining his topics within the Netherlands. Methodically, he started to construct a fleet of one hundred thirty vessels, 31,000 males, and 2,431 cannons to carry naval supremacy within the English Channel lengthy sufficient for Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma, and his military, stationed at Dunkirk, to pass over to England. not anything Elizabeth may do capable of cease the Armada Catholica. She despatched Drake to Spain in April 1587 in a magnificent strike at that component to the fleet forming at Cádiz, however it succeeded simply in delaying the crusing date. That hold up, in spite of the fact that, used to be vital, for Philip’s admiral of the sea seas, the veteran Álvaro de Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz, died, and the activity of boating the Armada was once given to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, duque de Medina-Sidonia, who was once at all times seasick and confessed that he knew extra approximately gardening than struggle. What ensued used to be now not the recent commander’s fault. He did the easiest he may perhaps in an most unlikely scenario, for Philip’s Armada used to be invincible in identify in basic terms. It used to be technologically and numerically outclassed by way of an English fleet of with reference to two hundred. Worse, its strategic objective used to be grounded on a fallacy: that Parma’s troops can be conveyed to England. The Spanish managed no deepwater port within the Netherlands within which the Armada’s nice galleons and Parma’s mild troop-carrying barges might rendezvous. Even the Deity appeared to be extra English than Spanish, and after all the fleet, buffeted by way of gales, was once dashed to items because it sought to flee domestic through the northern direction round Scotland and eire. Of the one hundred thirty ships that had left Spain, probably eighty five crept domestic; 10 have been captured, sunk, or pushed aground via English weapons, 23 have been sacrificed to wind and typhoon, and 12 others have been “lost, destiny unknown. ” inner discontent whilst the Armada was once defeated in the course of the first weeks of August 1588, the trouble England lower than the Tudors | 179 of Elizabeth’s reign used to be reached and effectively handed. The final years of her reign have been an anticlimax, for the instant the foreign risk was once surmounted, household strife ensued. there have been moments of serious heroism and good fortune— as while Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, Raleigh, and Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk, made a moment descent on Cádiz in 1596, seized town, and burned the total West Indian treasure fleet—but the conflict so gloriously started deteriorated right into a expensive crusade within the Netherlands and France and an unending guerrilla motion in eire, the place Philip came across he may well do to Elizabeth what she were doing to him within the Low nations. Even at the excessive seas, the times of incredible victories have been over, for the king of Spain quickly discovered to guard his empire and his treasure fleets. either Drake and Hawkins died in 1596 at the similar ill-conceived day trip into Spanish Caribbean waters—symbolic evidence that the great outdated days of buccaneering have been long past endlessly. At domestic the price of virtually 20 years of conflict (£4 million) raised havoc with the queen’s funds.

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