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By Waldemar Heckel

During this publication, Waldemar Heckel strains the increase and eventual fall of 1 of the main profitable army commanders in heritage. In 325 BCE, Alexander and his conquering military ready to come back domestic, after overcoming every thing of their course: armies, terrain, weather, all constantly adverse. Little did they be aware of that inside years their cherished king will be useless and their labours possible wasted. Tracing the increase and eventual fall of 1 of the main profitable army commanders in historical past, Heckel engagingly and with nice aspect exhibits us how Alexander earned his appellation, the nice.

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7. 8–9 claims that Alexander made connection with the 10 Thousand in his pre-battle speech at Issus. For Cunaxa and its aftermath see Waterfield 2006; Lane Fox 2004; and, at the everlasting popularity of the 10 Thousand, Rood 2004. three. the parable of Persian decadence has lately been debunked: see Sancisi-Weerdenburg 1987; Briant 2002. four. Xen. Anab. 1. five. nine. five. Xen. Anab. 1. 7. 6–7. 6. Olmstead 1948: 263. 7. See Lewis 1977: 83–107. eight. Xen. Hell. 1. five. 8–9. Cf. Diod. thirteen. 37. 4–5; Thuc. eight. forty six. 1–2. nine. Plut. a long time. 15. eight. The reference is to the daric, a coin stamped with a Persian archer, and the gold that Timocrates the Rhodian used to be purported to have allotted to the enemies of Sparta in Greece. 10. this is often one of many valuable subject matters of Isocrates’ Panegyricus. For the origins of Spartan betrayal of the Greeks in Asia see Thucydides, e-book eight, in addition to Lewis 1977. eleven. it seems that Medism was once, at any cost, a reprehensible task attached with the Persian battle (comparable, in glossy phrases, to collaboration with the Nazis) and never a connection with dealings with Persia in a later interval. even though the Athenians of the “Cold battle” among Persia and Athens within the 5th century intentionally created an image of the barbarian as an individual to be, whilst, feared and despised (Hall 1989), the truth of Greek–Persian kin used to be totally different (cf. Miller 1997). 12. Diod. 17. nine. five. no matter if the Thebans truly made this sort of proclamation is arguable. loads of proposal and literary craft went into the justification of the destruction of Thebes, which depicted Alexander’s use of calculated terror as condign punishment of Greece’s so much infamous Medizers. Cf. Justin eleven. three. 10, with Yardley & Heckel 1997: 95–6. thirteen. Isoc. Paneg. 122. See really the superb dialogue by way of Flower 2000; see additionally Seibert 1998. For the advance of the opposed view of Persian within the Athenian Empire, see corridor 1989; for Hellenicity, ethnicity, and tradition, corridor 2002. P1: KNP 9780521842471end CUFX173/Heckel 978 zero 521 84247 1 August 31, 2007 notes to pages 37–50 9:33 177 14. Xenophon, Hellenica 1. 6. 7. Cf. Cawkwell 2005: 163: “All this Panhellenist claptrap used to be congenial to Xenophon. ” 15. See Heckel & Yardley 2004: nine (passage 2[e]). sixteen. the facility and standing of Assyrian eunuchs is mentioned by means of Grayson 1993; cf. more durable 2004, for the early heart a while. It was once an Egyptian eunuch who used to be despatched by way of the Pharaoh Amasis in pursuit of the mercenary chief Phanes in 526/5 (Hdt. three. four. 2), and Ctesias of Cnidus mentions a couple of famous eunuchs on the Achaemenid court docket. Oman 1924: 1. 32 says that Narses “in spite of his education as a trifling court-chamberlain, confirmed army abilities no longer not so good as Belisarius’ personal. ” it is a false impression of Narses’ position. 17. The intrigues on the Persian courtroom are defined via Diod. 17. five. 3–6; Justin 10. three; Strabo 15. three. 24 C736; cf. Val. Max. nine. 2 ext. 7; Curt. 10. five. 23. Darius was once 50 on the time of his demise in 330 (Arr. three. 22. 6). For his heroism opposed to the Cadusians see Diod. 17. 6. 1; Justin 10. three. three. 18. For dialogue of his uprising and reign see Burstein 2000.

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