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By Annette Yoshiko Reed
Within the e-book of the Watchers, an Enochic apocalypse from the 3rd century BCE, the "sons of God" of Gen 6:1-4 are accused of corrupting humankind via their teachings of metalworking, cosmetology, magic, and divination. via tracing the adjustments of this motif in moment Temple, Rabbinic, and early medieval Judaism and early, past due vintage, and Byzantine Christianity, this booklet sheds gentle at the heritage of interpretation of Genesis, the altering prestige of Enochic literature, and where of parabiblical texts and traditions within the interchange among Jews and Christians in past due Antiquity and the early center a while.
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Additional info for Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature
10:12–13). eighty two the 2 debts of angelic descent may coexist for your time, fairly within the Christian culture, the place – not like Rabbinic Judaism – Adam, Eve, and the Serpent took on a growing number of value inside salvation-history. however, as we will see within the following chapters, centuries could move prior to this etiology of evil thoroughly displaced the Enochic fable of angelic descent, both as an evidence of the origins of human sin or as an account of the breach in heavenly order that prompted the earth to be packed with demons. three. gen 6:1–4 and the reception-history of the ebook of the watchers From the texts surveyed above, it truly is transparent that we won't comprehend the early Jewish (and, consequently, earliest Christian) historical past of interpretation of Gen 6:1–4 except the common effect of the Enochic fantasy of angelic descent. eighty three even if a couple of exegetes took euhemeristic or allegorical techniques to Gen 6:1–4 (e. g. , Philo, Josephus, 1 Sib. Or. ), the angelic interpretation of “sons of God” [! yh l ah ynb] is dominant, and various authors simply followed components from the e-book of the Watchers’ model of the angelic descent fable. every now and then, a text’s reviews concerning the fallen angels make little feel with no foreknowledge of the traditions in 1 En. 6–16 (1 Sib. Or. , Jude, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Sim. ). apparently, the Enochic delusion of angelic descent can have additionally inspired the text-history of LXX Genesis. even though the outdated Greek translation eighty one eighty two eighty three Rev 12:9; additionally Rev 9:1; Luke 10:18. Traditions in regards to the fall of devil have been supported with entice Isa 14 and Ezek 28. curiously, neither prooftext is utilized in early Jewish exegeses of Gen 6:1–4 (Davidson, Angels, 297). Grabbe maybe overreads the proof while he means that Rev 20’s description of the binding of devil is intended to awaken traditions, not just concerning the Watchers, yet particularly concerning the determine of Asael as interpreted via Azazel in Lev sixteen (“Scapegoat,” 160–61). See additional Dexinger, “Judisch-christliche,” 155–75. PRIMEVAL heritage AND the matter OF EVIL 117 (ca. three hundred bce) most likely learn “sons of God” [oëi u¬o© toÓ qeoÓ] at Gen 6:2 and Gen 6:4,84 fundamental and secondary witnesses attest the life of MSS that learn “angels of God” [oëi ggeloi toÓ qeoÓ] at Gen 6:2. eighty five As famous above, either Philo (ca. 20 bce–50 ce) and Josephus (ca. 37–100 ce) seem to use copies of LXX Genesis that contained this studying. In gentle of Philo’s direct citation of this model of Gen 6:2, the terminus advert quem for this scribal swap may be positioned within the early first century ce. 86 even though our facts doesn't let any enterprise conclusions, it's fascinating that Philo evinces the life of copies of LXX Genesis with this analyzing round the comparable time that the publication of the Watchers started to stream in Greek translation. regardless of a normal tendency for scribes within the first century bce and primary century ce to revise LXX translations in the direction of consonance with proto-Masoretic Hebrew textual content, it appears a few replaced their Greek copies of Genesis to slot the dominant interpretation of this passage, “correcting” the previous Greek to mirror an knowing of Gen 6:1–4 extra consonant with the Enochic fantasy of angelic descent.